1. Number: Like Chinese verbs, Chinese nouns do not differentiate between singular and plural. Thus English “a book” and “ books” is expressed same as “书” in Chinese. 2. Structural particle 的: The structural particle 的indicates that the word or phrase preceding it functions as an attributive which defines or modifies the noun or noun phrase that comes after it. For example: 好的车 hǎo de chē good cars 很忙的大夫 hěn máng de dàifu a very busy doctor 我的爸爸 wǒ de bàba my father 她妈妈的书 tā māma de shū her mom's booksIn general, the particle “的” comes in as a link marker between the modifier and the noun or the noun phrase modified. But,there are some cases in which “的” is optional: A. Where personal pronouns modify words denoting people in close relationship to them: 她(的)爸爸 tā bàba her father 我们(的)哥哥 wŏmen gēge our older brother 你(的)朋友 nĭ péngyou your friends B. Where monosyllabic adjectives modify nouns or noun phrases: 好(的)哥哥 hăo gēge good older brother 好(的)车 hăo chē good cars There are some other cases, which we’ll discuss in the lessons to come. 3. The classificatory verb 是: The verb “是” acts as a link between the subject and a description of it usually a way of identifying it. For instance: 他是大夫。 Tā shì dàifu. He is a doctor. To negate 是 use 不: 她不是我妈妈。 Tā bú shì wŏ māma. She is not my mom. To form a simple question, you just add interrogative particle “吗” at the end of a statement: 这是你的车吗？ Zhè shì nĭde chē ma?