1. Place names as attributives: Names of countries, regions, cities, etc. may serve unchanged as attributives. For example: 日本车 Rìbĕn chē Japanese car 德国人 Déguó rén German person When a place name functions as an attributive modifying a noun or a noun phrase, “的” is not needed to mark the connection. 2. Languages as attributives: Names of languages can also serve unchanged as attributives. The same as with place names, there is no need to have a “的” to mark the subordination, when a name of a language functions as a modifier. 法文老师 Făwén lăoshī teacher of French 汉语书 Hànyŭ shū Chinese book 3. The interrogative particle 吧: “吧” accompanies suggestions. It is used to form questions, which ask for confirmation of a supposition: 你是美国人吧？ Nĭ shì Mĕiguó rén ba? You are American (I suppose)? 这不是你的书吧？Zhè bú shì nĭ de shū ba? This is not your book (I suppose)? 4. Specific questions with interrogative pronouns: Unlike in English, Chinese questions that use interrogative pronouns do not entail inversion of the word order. The interrogative pronoun occupies the same slot as the information sought does in the reply. For example: Q: 他是谁？ Tā shì shéi/shuí? Who is he? A: 他是大夫. Tā shì dàifu. He is a doctor. Q: 那是谁的书？ Nà shì shéi/shuí de shū? Whose book is that? A: 那是我的书。 Nà shì wŏ de shū. That is my book. Q: 这是哪国车？ Zhè shì nă/něi guó chē? Which country’s car is this? A: 这是德国车。 Zhè shì Déguó chē? This is a German car.