初级第八课

语 法

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1. Forms of Addressing People: In Chinese, titles follow names. For instance: 王老师 Wáng Lăoshī Teacher Wang 王大夫 Wáng Dàifu Doctor Wang 2. Imperative sentences: The imperative sentence is one expressing command, request, urging, etc., and having an imperative tone. The subject is often absent in an imperative sentence, and the sentence often ends with an exclamation mark. For example: 看电视! Kàn diànshì! Watch TV! To express a polite command, the polite expression 请 is used and followed by a verb or a verbal phrase. For example: 请进! Qĭng jìn! Please enter! 请喝茶! Qĭng hē chá! Have some tea, please! Note that in English, the polite expression “please” can appear before or after the command; in Chinese, 请 is used at the beginning of the sentence. The particle 吧 can also be added to the end of a sentence to indicate a softened demand or an urge. For instance: 喝咖啡吧。 Hē kāfēi ba. Have some coffee. 我们看书吧。 Wŏmen kàn shū ba. Let’s read. 3. Unmarked co-ordination: When a list of things is being done, or a number of activities is being carried out, they may be followed one another, without the connection being marked, and positioned at the very beginning of a sentence. For example: 咖啡,茶,我都喝。 Kāfēi, chá, wŏ dōu hē. I drink both coffee and tea. Note that 都 (both, all), which regularly follows such a list, refers to the listed series. 都. But note being a true adverb, 都 has to come close before the verb. Thus, the order of the sentence is fixed: The list of A, B, etc., (subject) 都 Verb More examples: 中文,英文,他都不学。 Zhōngwén, Yīngwén, tā dōu bù xué. He studies neither Chinese nor English. 看电视,看书,你妈妈都爱吗? Kàn diànshì, kàn shū, nĭ māma dōu ài ma? Does your Mom like both watching TV and reading?

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