1. Verbal constructions in series: Verbal constructions in series are often seen in Chinese sentences. The verbs 来 (lái) and 去 (qù) are two verbs used often in such constructions. For example: 她 去 看 她妈妈。 Tā qù kàn tā māma. She went to see her mom. v1 v2 In the example, the second verb expresses the purpose of the action intended by the first verb, but there is no grammatical feature between the two verbs to mark the subordination. Between the verbs, a place word can be inserted to specify the location where the intended action takes place. For instance: 我来纽约学经济。 Wŏ lái Niŭyuē xué Jīngjì. I came to NY to study Economics. If you want to negate the sentence, the negation falls before the first verb: 我不去喝茶 Wŏ bú qù hē chá. I won’t go to have tea. 我不去北京学中文。 Wŏ bú qù Bĕijīng xué Zhōngwén. I won’t go to Beijing to study Chinese. 2. Double objects: Some transitive verbs take two objects: a direct object ( usuallyreferring to a thing), and an indirect object (usually referring to a person). No function word is used between the two objects, but their order is fixed: The indirect object is followed by the direct object, and never the other way around: 他借我画报。 Tā jiè wŏ huàbào. He lends me the pictorials. 她给我你的电话。 Tā gĕi wŏ nĭ de diànhuà. He gave me your phone (number). Sentence Patterns with a predicate verbs taking double objects Subject Predicate noun/pronoun Verb indirect object (noun/pronoun) Direct object (noun/noun phrase) Particle 妈妈 给 美国学生 汉语书 江华 不还 王老师 什么 你 教 他们 法文 吗 3. Pivotal construction: Consider this sentence: 她朋友请她喝咖啡。 Tā péngyou qĭng tā hē kāféi. Her friend invited her to have coffee. In this sentence, the underlined 她 is known grammatically as a “pivot”, and is the object of the first verb 请 , and the subject to the second verb 喝 .This type of sentence is called a “pivotal construction”. There are a handful of verbs in the Chinese language, which can be used in pivotal constructions. Among them, we so far have learned 欢迎 (to welcome)， 叫 (to ask)， 请 (to invite) . For example: 欢迎 你 来 我们 学院 学电脑。 Huānyíng nĭ lái wŏmen xuéyuàn xué diànnăo, (We) welcome you to come to our college to study Computer Science. 她叫我今天去纽约。 Tā jiào wŏ jīntiān qù Niŭyuē. She asked me to go New York today. . The summery of pivotal construction: Subject + Verb + Pivot + Verb 我 + 请 + 他 + 来 4. The difference between 知道 and 认识: 认识 emphasizes the ability to identify a person or thing as being this and not that. It means to distinguish, recognize and understand the difference. It also means ‘to be acquainted with’. 你认识她吗？ 认识。她是我弟弟的朋友。 Nĭ rènshi tā ma? Rènshi. Tā shì wŏ dìdì de péngyou. Do you recognize (Are you acquainted with) her? Yes. She is my younger brother’s friend. 知道 means to understand and to be aware of facts and priciples: 我不认识 Judy，可是我知道她是我弟弟的朋友。 Wŏ bú rènshi Judy, kĕshì wŏ zhīdao tā shì wŏ dìdì de péngyou. I am not acquainted with Judy. But I know that she is my younger brother’s friend.