初级第十六课


语 法

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1. The “--的” structure:
The “--的” structure is one in which the structua

l particle 的 is 
used to indicate possession or other qulities and is attached to:
1) a noun;    eg.  这本 书  是 我 哥 哥 的 。 
                  Zhè běn shū  shì wǒ gēge de .
		  This book is my older brother's.
2) a noun phrase; eg.  这 台 电 脑 是 东 亚 图 书 馆 的 。 
           Zhè tái diànnǎo shì dōngyà túshūguǎn de .
           This computer is the East Asian Library's.
3) an adjective; eg.  那 儿 有 红 的 车 。 红 的 不 好 。 
		 Nàr yǒu hóng de chē . Hóng de bù hǎo . 
		 There is(are) a red car(s) over there. Red one(s) is(are) not good.
4) a pronoun; eg.  他 们 的 阅 览 室 很 大 。 我 喜 欢 他 们 的 。 
      Tamen de yuèlǎnshì hěn dà . Wǒ xǐhuān tāmen de . 
      Their reading room is huge. I like theirs
The “"--的” structure functions as a noun phrase in the sentence. 
In all the above examples, the noun is understood and would be tedious to repeat, 
but a check can be made by supplying it:
5) 这本 书  是 我 哥 哥 的( 书 ) 。 
6) 这 台 电 脑 是  东 亚 图 书 馆  的(电 脑 )。 
7) 那 儿 有 红 的 车 。 红 的 (车 )不 好。 
8) 他 们 的 阅 览 室 很 大 。 我 喜 欢 他 们 的(阅 览 室 )。 
If the noun is not supplied, the structure may be used in the generalized sense; 
eg.:
9)大 的 不 一 定 好 。 
Dà de bù yídìng hǎo .     
(The) big ones are not necessarily good.
	
2. The proposition 从 : 
The preposition 从 usually take words which denote locality as objects. 
For example:
10)从 宿 舍     cóng sùshè      from the dorm
11)从 我 家     cóng wŏ jiā     from my home
A propositional phrase such as 从 我 家 ,从 宿 舍  can funtion as adverbial 
adjunct indicating direction. The position of an adverbial adjunct always
precedes the verb it modifies. 
For example:
12)我 从 我 家 来 。 	 
Wǒ cóng wǒ jiā lái .
I come from my home.
13)古 老 师 从 哪 儿 去 ? 	
Gǔ lǎoshī cóng nǎr qù?  
From where is Teacher Gu going ?
Nouns or pronouns denoting persons cannot be used independently as the 
object of the proposition 从 to indicate locality.
They must also take 这 儿  or 那 儿 :
14)我 从 我 妈 妈 那 儿 来 。 	
Wǒ cóng wǒ māma nàr lái . 
I came from my mom's place.
15)他 从 你 这 儿 去 。 
Tā cóng nǐ zhèr qù . 
He went/left from your place.
The negative form of a sentence with 从 prepositional phrase is:
16) 妈 妈 不 从 这 儿 去 。 
Māma bù cóng zhèr qù . 
Mom won't go/leave from here.
Note that the position of 不 is before the prepostional phrase.

3. The expression of “太 +adj./v. + 了”:
The expression of “太 +adj./v.+ 了” indicates that something has 
gone to the extreme, and that some limit has been passed. 
In short, it shows “excessiveness”. For example:
17) 这 条 裤 子 太 小 了 。 
Zhè tiáo kùzi tài xiăo le.
The pants are too small.
18) 那 个 人 太 老 了 。 
Nà gè rén tài lăo le.
That guy is too old.
19) 他 太 喜 欢 他 的 孩 子 。 
Tā tài xǐhuan tā de háizi .
He likes his kids too much. (He spoils his kids.)
The expression of “太 +adj.+ 了” does not always carry a negative tone. 
It can also be use to show admiration. For example:
20) 古 老 师 的 书 法 太 漂 亮 了 。 
Gǔ lǎoshī de shūfǎ tài piàoliang le . 
Teacher  Gu’s calligraphy is wonderful.
 
4. The adverb 就: 
The adverb 就 is often placed before the main verb to indicate emphasis 
of different implication.  
For example:
*as 'precisely', 'exactly':
21) 那 就 是 图 书 馆 。 
 Nà jiù shì túshūguǎn .             
THAT is the library.
22) 她 就 是 东 亚 馆 的 古 老 师 。 
Tā jiù shì dōngyàguǎn de Gǔ lǎoshī .
SHE is Teacher Gu of East Asian Library.
*As ‘only’:
23) 我 们 系 就 有 一 个 阅 览 室 。 
 Wǒmen xì jiù yǒu yī gè yuèlǎnshì .          
There is ONLY one reading room in our department.
*As ‘immediately’:
24)我 就 去 语 言 实 验 室 。 
Wǒ jiù qù yǔyán shíyànshì . 
I WILL go to the language lab RIGHT AWAY.
The adverb 就  usually does not have a negative form. 
Only when indicating “absolutely not”, can it take negative form.
For example:
25)她 就 不 是 古 老 师 。 
She is DEFINITELY NOT Teacher Gu.
26)我 就 不 去 语 言 实 验 室 。 
I am ABSOLUTELY NOT going to the language lab.
27)我 们 系 就 没 有 阅 览 室 。 
There  DEFINITELY ISN’T Any reading room in our department.
	
5. Reduplication of verbs:
Reduplication of verbs such as “看 看 , 等 等” tends to stress the 
“tentative effect” of the verb and  to minimize the action. It is 
often used (A) to describe modestly to one’s own activities. 
For example:
28) 我 看 看 你 的 书 ,  好 吗 ? 
Wǒ kàn kàn nǐ de shū ,  hǎo ma ? 
May I have a look at your book?
(B) to form a mild imperative, or to make a suggestion. For example:
29) 你 看 看 这 本 书 吧 。 
Nǐ kàn kàn zhè běn shū ba .
Take a look at this book.
30)喝 喝 这 茶 吧 。 真 好 。 
Hē hē zhè chá ba . Zhēn hǎo .
Have a sip of the tea. (It is) really good.
The rules for the redublication of verbs are:
(A) In a verb-object structure, only the verb and not the object, is 
redublicated. For example:
喝 茶 --喝 喝 茶 			问 王 老 师 --问 问 王 老 师 
(B) When a monosyllabic verb is reduplicated, "一 " can come 
between the verb and its reduplicate:
喝 茶 --喝 喝 茶 --喝 一 喝 茶  	看 地 图 --看 看 地 图 --看 一 看 地 图 
(C) To a disyllabic verb is simply repeat the whole word:
学 习 汉 语 --学 习 学 习 汉 语 	帮 助 他 --帮 助 帮 助 他 
Note that "一 " cannot come between the disyllabic verb and its redublicate.

6.  The adjective 好 as an adverb:
The adjective 好 often can function as an adverb to modify a verb. When 好 
works as an adverb, it means roughly "good to" or "easy to". For example:
31)  汉 语 很 好 学 。 
Hànyǔ hěn hǎo xué .  
Chinese is easy to learn.
32)  外 语 学 院 很 好 找 。 
Wàiyǔ xuéyuàn hěn hǎo zhǎo .                                           
The Foreign Language Institute is ease to locate.
In some cases, 好 +  V.  is taken as a set-phrase, and is considered to have 
the status of a word, which can function as an adjective. For instance:
33)  这 条 裙 子 很 好 看 。 
Zhè tiáo qúnzi hěn hǎo kàn . 	                
The skirt is really nice to look at.         
HENCE: The skirt is really nice-looking (pretty).

34)  这 是 一 本 很 好 看 的 书 。 
Zhè shì yī běn hěn hǎo kàn de shū . 	               
This is a nice to read book. / This is an interesting (good) book.

7. The preposed object:
Sometimes, a verb can have a list of objects. For example:
35)  我 有 汉 语 书 , 英 语 书 , 和 日 语 书 。 
 wǒ yǒu hànyǔ shū , yīngyǔ shū , hé rìyǔ shū .                 
I have Chinese books, English books, and Japanese books
In a case like this, a Chinese speaker likes to change the word-order, 
and prepose the list of objects in the way like this:
汉 语 书 , 英 语 书 , 日 本 书 , 我 都 有 。 
 Hànyǔ shū , yīngyǔ shū , Rìběn shū , wǒ dōu yǒu .            
				
Notice that when the list is preposed, the adverb "dōu" is present, and 
its positition in the sentence is right ahead of the verb. “Dōu” must 
always follow its referent, a requirement that works well with this 
construction. must One more examples:
36)  茶 , 咖 啡 , 酒 ,  他 都 喝 。 
 Chá , kāfēi , jiǔ ,  tā dōu hē .              
He drinks tea, coffee, and wine.

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