初级第十九课


语 法

对话  |  短文  | 词汇  |  语型 |  练习

 

1. The  conjunction 還 是 :


   The conjunction 還 是  indicates alternative. It’s English equivalent  is ‘ or ’. The Chinese 
   conjunction 還 是  is normally used in interrogative sentences.  For example:


   1。 (是 )你 還 是 她 明 天 去 看 媽 媽 ? (The choice is  between the subjects  你   and 她 )
       (Shì) nĭ háishì tā míngtiān qù kàn māma? 
       Will she or you go to see mom tommorrow?
   2。 你 喝 茶 還 是 喝 咖 啡 ?  ( The choice is between the objects 茶  and 咖 啡 )
       Nĭ hē chá háishì hē kāfēi? 
       Do you drink tea or coffee?
   3。 她 想 看 書 還 是 寫 字 ?  ( The choice is between verb phrases 看 書 and 寫 字  ) 
       Tā xiăng kàn shū háishì xiĕ zì?
       Does she want to read or write?
   4。 今 天 晚 上 你 八 點 還 是 九 點 來 ? ( The choice is  between time words 八 點  and 九 點  )
       Jīntiān wănshang nĭ bā diăn háishì jiŭ diăn lái? 
       Will you come at eight or nine tonight?
   Conjunction 還 是 can also be used  in an declarative sentence with the implication of uncertainty.
   For instance:


   5。 我 不 知 道 她 是 中 國 人 還 是 日 本 人 。 
       Wŏ bù zhīdào tā shì Zhōngguó rén háishì Rìbĕn  rén. 
       I don’t know whether she is Chinese or Japanese. 
                                                                      
2. Topic  construction:


   Consider this sentence:
   6。 我 口 很 渴 。              Wŏ kŏu hĕn kĕ.    (As for)  me, the mouth is thirsty.
   This is a very special type  of Chinese sentence that need to identified. The character 我  is 
   grammatically considered a ‘ topic ’, on  which the rest of sentence, a subject-predicate construction, 
   comments. The  topic can be roughly translated into English as ‘as for’, ‘speaking of’ . Let’s  look at
   some more examples.
   7。 小 謝 的 女 朋 友 人 很 好 。 
       Xiăo Xiè de n ǚ péngyou rén hĕn hăo. 
       (Speaking of Xie’s girlfriend, her personality is nice.
   8。 我 們 學 院 老 師 很 好 , 學 生 也 很 好 。 
       Wŏmen xuéyuàn lăoshī hĕn hăo, xuésheng yĕ hĕn hăo. 
       ( As for ) our college, the teachers are good, so are the students.

3.  The plural measure 些 :
    The demonstrative pronouns 這 , 那  and interrogative pronoun 哪  can indicate the plural by  
    adding 些  to them. For example:
    9。  這 些 書 是 誰 的 ? 是 以 前 的 那 位 漢 語 老 師 的 。 
         Zhè xiē shū shì shéi de? Shì yĭqián de nà wèi Hànyŭ lăoshī de. 
         Whose books are those? (They) are the  previous Chinese teacher’s.
    10。 小 丁 很 喜 歡 那 些 中 國 民 歌 錄 音 帶 。 
         Xiăo Dīng hĕn xĭhuan nà xiē Zhōngguó míngē lùxiàngdài. 
         Ding likes those tapes of Chinese folk songs very much.
    11。 哪 些 歌 是 現 代 的 ? 哪 些 歌 是 古 典 的 ? 
         Nă xiē gē shì xiàndài de? Nă xiē gē shì gŭdài de? 
         Which songs are modern? Which songs are classical?
    The plural  些  can also be added to  the numeral 一  , which means ‘some’ in English:
    12。 音 樂 有 各 種 各 樣的  , 人 也有  各 種 各 樣 的 ; 所 以 ,  一 些 人 喜 歡 流 行 曲 , 
         一 些 人喜 歡 古 典 曲 。
 
         Yīnyuè yŏu gèzhŏng gèyàng de, rén yĕ  yŏu gèzhŏng gèyàng de; suŏyĭ, yì xiē rén xĭhuan liúxíng qŭ, 
         yì xiē rén xĭhuan gŭdiăn qŭ. 
         Music, there  are different kinds, and people, there are different kind, too; therefore, some
         like popular music, some like classical  music.
         Note that whenever plural 些 is added, there is no need to use another  measure word; also it can 
         only be used with the number one: 一 些   ‘a few’.

4.  來   as a causative verb:
   Look at the sentence from the  dialogue in Lesson Nineteen.
   
   13。 來 一 杯 (百 事 可 樂 )。 

        Lái yì bēi (băishì kĕlè). 

        “Please make a cup of Pepsi come.” /  “Please serve/bring a cup of  Pepsi. he  use of causative verbs 
        in Literary Chinese is very common. But in Modern  Chinese, there are only a few which can be used   
        in a causative sense. The most often seen are 來  shown above;  上   ‘to make it come up’ and 出  ‘ to 
        make it come out ’. Let’s see some more  examples:
    14。 先 生 , 幾 點 上 菜 ? 

        Xiānsheng, jĭ diăn shàng cài? 

        “Sir, what time will you make the dishes come up?”/  “Sir, when dishes will be  served?” 
    15。 聽 說 你 要 出 一 本 書了  , 對 嗎 ?

         Tīngshuō nĭ yào chū  yì bĕn shū le, duì ma? 

         “I heard  that you are going make a book come out, right?” 
         / “I  heard that you are going to publish a book,  right?  
 

  
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