1.When a verb/verb phrase or a clause modifying a noun: We have come across Chinese noun phrase such as: 很好的朋友， 乾净的房间 .In those two examples, the nouns 朋友 and 房间 are respectively modified by the adjectives 很好 and 乾净 .The structural 的 marks the relationship between the modifier and the modified: 很好 的 朋友 The modifier 的 the modified The format applies when the modifier is a verb/verb phrase or a clause. For example: 1. 学中文 的 学生 the students learning Chinese the modifier the modified the modified the modifier 2. 妈妈给我 的 书 the book given to me by Mom the modifier the modified the modified the modifier 3. 教我中文 的 老师 the teacher who teaches me Chinese the modifier the modified the modified the modifier 4. 我买 的 车 the car (which) I bought the modifier the modified the modified the modifier Points of merits: (1)Notice the difference in word order between the Chinese phrases and their English equivalents. In Chinese the modifier ALWAYS PRECEDES the modified, while in English the opposite is the truth. (2)In English, when a verb or a verb phrase modifies a noun, there is no structural connector to mark the relation. See example 1 and 2. (3)In English, when a clause modifies a noun, there is usually a structural connector, which could be WHICH, WHO, WHOM, WHEN, WHAT. But, whatever the connector is, when translated into Chinese, it takes the form of 的 .See example 3 and 4. (4)In Chinese, when the modified noun is understood in the context, it can be omitted. For example: 昨天妈妈买很多东西，有吃的( )，也有用的( ). Yesterday Mom bought a lot of stuff. There are stuff to eat; there are stuff to use. when the noun is used in a general sense, it can also be omitted. For example: 学中文的( ) those who study Chinese 今天来的( ) those who come today 她说的 ( ) what(those which) she said 2. The conjunction ...的时候： The conjunction ..的时候is an equivalent to English “when...” or “the time when...”. The difference between Chinese ..的时候 and English “when” or “the time when...” is that in Chinese the conjunction is AFTER the clause, while in English the conjunction is BEFORE the clause. For example: 我吃饭 的时候 when I eat clause conjunction conjunction clause 去年他回台湾 的时候 when he returned to Taiwan last year clause conjunction means conjuction clause Now let’s look at some sentences with a time clause: 我吃饭的时候 ，(我)不看电视。 When I eat, I don’t watch TV. 她来的时候，我不在。 I wasn’t in, when she came. Points of merits: Note that the position of English time clause is flexible, it could be before the main clause or after the main clause; but the position of Chinese time clause is fixed. It has to COME BEFORE the main clause. 3.The conjunction 又...又...： 又...又...means “both...and...” in English. The pattern 又 + adj/verb 又 + adj/verb is used to indicate two concurrent situations or actions. For example: 她的房间 又 大 又 乾净。 Her room is both big and clean. adj adj 大家 又 唱 又 跳。 Everyone is both singing and dancing. verb verb Points of merits: 1.When two adjectives are used in this way, they must be unidirectional, that is either complimentary or pejorative. For example: 又快又好 fast and good 又忙又累 busy and tiring 2.When two verbs are used in this way, they must be concurrent: 又说又笑 speak and laugh 又吃又喝 eat and drink 4.The interrogative pronoun 怎么样: The interrogative pronoun 怎么样 is used to solicit other people’s opinions. It can follow both a noun phrase and a sentence. For example: Noun phrase: 这个老师，怎么样？ This teacher, what do you think? 那间房间，怎么样？ What is your opinion of the room? Sentence: 九月我们去北京，怎么样？ We are going to Beijing in September, what do you think? 看晚上的电影，怎么样？ See a evening movie, how is that? 5.The interrogative pronoun 怎麽: The interrogative pronoun 怎麽 is often used to inquire about the manner of an action. For example: 你明天怎麽去纽约？ How will you go to New York? 你怎麽念这个字？ How do you pronoun this word? 怎麽 can also be use to inquire about reason. The difference between 怎麽 and 为什麽 in inquiry is the tone. 为什麽 goes after the fact while 怎麽 carries the tone of puzzlement, sometimes even of accusatory. 大家都学汉语， 你怎麽不学呢？ Everyone study Chinese. How come you don’t? 今天你怎麽不去图书馆呢？ 怎麽不去？ 现在才八点。太早了。 How come you don’t go to the library? Why won’t I go (Of course I’ll go)? It’s only eight now. ( It’s) too early. 6.The interrogative pronoun 多: The interrogative pronoun 多 works with adjectives and adverbs and with psycho-emotional verbs such as 爱,喜欢, 想 etc. When it works with adjectives, it means “how”. For example: 你的房间多大？ How big is your room? 她多常回家？ How often does she come home? When it works with psycho-emotional verbs, it means “to what extent”: 你多爱他？ To what extent do you love him? 他多喜欢开车? To what extent does he like to drive? (To what extent is his craziness for driving?) 7.The adverb 更: The adverb 更 embodies comparative degree. It works with adjectives, psycho-emotional verbs and some adverbs: 他有书，我的书更多。 He has books, (but) my books are even more (I have more books). 我和姐姐更常去纽约。 My older sister and I go to New York more often. 我喜欢学中文，可是，我更喜欢学电脑。 I like to study Chinese, but like to study Computer Science more. 8. The modal verb 得: The modal verb 得 means “need to, have to, must” in English. It’s negation is 不用 (need not). For example: 老师，今天我们得作汉字作业吗？ 不用。 Teacher, do we need to do character writing homework today? No. 世海，十点了，你得给你爸打个电话。不用。爸爸今天不在。 Shihai, it’s ten. You should give your dad a call. Not necessary. Daddy is not home today.