1. Direction and location words: Direction word such as 上/下/左/右/前/後 /里边/面/外/旁/对/中 are often used in conjunction with suffixes such as 边/面/间. Together they form a location word (place word). For example: 上边/面 n. (at) the top, 下边/面 n. beneath 左边/面 n. (on) the left 右边/面 n. (to) the right 前边/面 n. (in) the front 後边/面 n. (in) the back 里边/面 n. inside, interior 外边/面 n. outside, exterior 旁边 n. (by) the side, 对面 n. (on) the opposite side, across from 中间 n. in the middle Note that direction words 上/下/左/右/前/後/里边/面/外 can take both 边/面, while 旁 takes only 边 , 对only takes 面, and 间 goes only with 中. 2. When a location word is modified by a noun or a pronoun: A noun or a pronoun such as 图书馆,桌子,她,我们 can be used to modify a location word. For example: 桌子(的)前边 in front of the table 图书馆(的)里边 in(side) the library 她(的)旁边 next to her 我们(的)对面 across us Points to note: When a noun or a pronoun modifies a location word, the grammatical marker 的 is optional. When a noun modifies a location word, which is a combination of one of the direction words 上,下,前,後,里,外 or 旁 , but never 左,右 ,对,中 + suffix, the suffix can be omitted if 的 is omitted. For example: 宿舍前边 = 宿舍前 教室里边 = 教室里 椅子的下边 = 椅子下 窗户的旁边 = 窗户旁 Place names such as 中国,美国,北京,纽约 never work with direction words 里, so it is INCORRECT to say: *英国里 *上海里边 *欧洲的里边 etc. English phrases such as “in the dictionary”, “in his letter”, and “in the Chinese book”, when translated into Chinese, more often than not, they become: In the dictionary = 字典上 In his letter = 他的信上 In Chinese book = 中文书上 Why? Because “letter”, “dictionary” and “book” are the medium of “words”. Instead of 里, the Chinese prefer 上 . It’s a way for them to show their respect to and worship of “words”, which embody knowledge. When a noun is modified by a location word: A location word can be used to modify a noun. For example: 上边的书 the book on the top 前边的车 the car in the front 下面的图 the drawing below 里边的人 the person inside 中间的卧室 the bedroom in the middle 外边的椅子 the chairs outside Note that when a location word modifies a noun, the grammatical marker 的 is not optional. The pattern: “Someone/something 在 some location”: The pattern: “Someone/something 在 some location” is equivalent to the English sentence pattern “something/someone is/are in some location”. Note 在 is a verb meaning not a preposition ‘to be in/on/at/by ect’. For example: Someone/something 在?? some location English Noun/noun phrase verb location word 电话 在 他的房间里 The phone is in his room. 妈妈 不在 厨房里 Mom is not in the kitchen. 你新买的车 在不在 外面 Is the car you bought recently outside? 你的宿舍 在 健身房的旁边吗 Is your dorm next to the gyms? 谁 在 教室里 Who are in the classroom? 学生中心 在 哪儿 Where is the students’ center? The pattern “In some location 是 something/someone”: The pattern “In some location 是 something/someone” is equivalent to the English sentence pattern: “In some location is/are someone/something”. For example: In some location 是 Something/someone English location word verb Noun/noun phrase 他的左边 是 他的太太 To his left is his wife. 门的对面 不是 窗户 Opposite the door is not a window. 你的前面 是 谁 In front of you is who? 邮局的对面 是 什麽楼 ？ What building is across from the post-office? The expression 怎麽走: This is an idiomatic expression used for asking for direction. For example: 请问，去咖啡厅 怎麽走？ Excuse me, how can I get to the coffee house? 小王，你知道去纽约怎麽走吗？ Wang, do you know how to get to New York? 对不起，我不知道去那儿怎麽走。 Sorry, I do know how to get there. The pattern 离...远: The pattern 离...远 means “far from” in English. For instance: 我家 离 学院 远。 My home is far from the college. subj. prep. phrase adj. as verb subj. adj. prep. phrase 食堂 离宿舍 远 吗？ Is the dining hall far from the dorm? 这儿 离纽约 不远。 Here is not far from New York. Points to note: In Chinese pattern the prepositional phrase formed with 离...comes before the verb. In Chinese, usually when a sentence has a prepositional phrase, negation falls before the preposition. For example: 我们不 在家 吃饭。 prep. phrase But this is not the case with 离...远,Negation should go before the verb in this pattern. The pattern 早知道...就(不)...了: The pattern 早知道...就 (不)...了 carries a subjunctive mood. It is equivalent to the English pattern: “If somebody had known something earlier, he would (not) have?” . Let’s look at some examples: 早知道你不喜欢看电影，我就不请你看电影了。 If ( I ) had known that you don’t like watching movies, I would not have invited you to see a movie. 早知道你去纽约，我就跟你一起去了。 If ( I ) had known that you went to New York, I would have gone with you.