初级第二十四课

语 法

1.The auxiliary verb 要: The auxiliary verb 要 indicates a future action. It is an equivalent of English “shall, will, be going to, or want to”. It also expresses a desire or an intention, somewhat like English “want to”. 明天我们要去钓鱼。 Tomorrow we’ll go fishing. 这个周末他要去纽约。 This weekend he’ll go to New York. To negate, use 不 + v. For example: 老师,我不回答这个问题。 Teacher, I won’t answer this question. 今天她不吃饭。 She is not going to eat today. Note that 要 can also function as a verb. When it is used as a verb, it means “to want” in English, and it is followed by a noun which works as the object of the verb “to want”. For example: 我要一杯咖啡。 I want a cup of coffee. 他不要这本书。 He doesn’t want this book. If you want to express the English idea “to want to” in Chinese, instead of 要,you should employ 想. For instance: 我想买一张桌子。 I want to buy a table. 他不想去郊外。 He doesn’t want to go to the suburbs. 2.(一)点儿: Like 一下,一点儿 can be used after the verb to moderate the tone of voice. For example: 你吃(一)点儿鱼吧。 (You) eat some fish. 我们买(一)点儿点心,好吗? We buy some deserts, OK? When 一点儿 is followed by an object, 一 is often dropped. 3.The pattern 不是 n./v....就是 n./v....: The pattern 不是 n.....就是 n....is equivalent to the English pattern: “If subject is not something/someone, then the subject is the other”. For example: 她不是张老师就是王老师。 If she is not Teacher Zhang, then she is Teacher Wang. 这条裙子不是妹妹的就是姐姐的。 This skirt if is not younger sister’s then is older sister’s. 那不是画报就是杂志。 If that is not a pictorial, then it is a magazine. The pattern 不是 v.....就是 v...is equivalent to the English pattern: “If subject is not doing something, then the subject is doing the other”. For example: 每天他不是吃饭就是睡觉。 Everyday, if he is not eating, then (he) is sleeping. 我很忙,每天不是学习就是打工。 I’m busy. Everyday if (I’m) not studying then (I’m) working. 4.The pattern “...也好”: The pattern ...也好 translated into English will be “ It would be a nice alternative that...”. For example: 今天我很忙。明天去也好。 Today I’m busy. It would be a nice alternative that (we) go tomorrow. 王老师没空,那麽,丁老师教也好。 Teacher Wang has no time, then, it will be a nice alternative that Teacher Ding will teach. 这几天大家都很忙。下午不上课也好。 These few days everybody is busy. It will be a nice alternative that (we) will not have class this afternoon. Note that “It” in English pattern “It would be a nice alternative that...” is a superficial subject. The actual subject is the clause “that...”. In Chinese, there is no place for a superficial subject, so you have to move the actual subject back to its rightful place. For instance: It would be a nice alternative that we take train tomorrow. 我们明天坐火车去也好。 5.怎麽去 vs. 怎麽走: 怎麽走 is an idiomatic expression, used to ask for DIRECTION. For example: 纽约怎麽走? How to get to New York? 学生食堂怎麽走? How to get to the Students’ dining hall? 健身房怎麽走? How to get to the gyms? 怎麽去 is an expression which is translated into English as “by what means”. For example: 明天我们怎麽去?坐火车还是开车? By what means are we going tomorrow, by train or driving? 他没有车,下午怎麽去呢? He has no car. How can he go this afternoon ( by what means can he go this afternoon?) 6. The pattern v. 就 v. 吧: v. 就 v. 吧 can be translated in into English as “if that’s what someone wants, then (we/I) will do it.” For example: 爸爸要我学中文。学就学吧。 Dad asks me to learn Chinese, If that’s what he wants, then I will do it. 他说带自己作的点心。带就带吧。 He said (we’d) bring the pastry we made ourselves. If that’s what he wanted, then I’ll do it.

 

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