初级第二十五课

语 法

The complement of degree: ( 1 ) Adjective or an adjective phrase as the complement of degree : An adjective or an adjective phrase which follows the verb to express the degree of the action is known as THE COMPLEMENT OF DEGREE. For example: 她唱得好。 She sings well. 他来得真早。 He came really early 他们吃得不多。 They did not eat much. 你睡得早吗? Do you go to bed early? 她妹妹玩得高兴不高兴? Did her sister play happily (did her sister have fun playing)? 她写得怎麽样? How well does she write? Note that: 1. The verb and adjective or an adjective phrase which function as the complement of degree must always be joined by the structural particle 得 . 2. The negation is formed by inserting 不 between structural 得 and the adjective complement. 3. To form a simple question, a question particle such 吗, 吧 can be added to the end of the statement. 4. An affirmative/negative question is formed in the complement section. 5. To question the complement of degree, the question pronoun 怎麽样 is used. Summary: Subject verb structural negation Adjective Question English translation particle Adj. phrase Ques. Part. Particle 她 想 得 太多了 She thinks too much. 我 说 得 不 清楚 I did not speak clearly. 你妈妈 买 得 多 吗 Did your Mom buy a lot? 你弟弟 学 得 怎么样 How well does your younger brother learn? (2) When the verb has both an object and a complement of degree in a sentence, either the verb should be repeated or the object should be preposed. For example: 1.the verb is repeated: 她游泳游得很快。 She swims very fast. 我开车开得很慢。 I drive very slow. 她吃饭吃得多吗? Does she eat a lot of rice (does she eat rice a lot)? 你的朋友说汉语说得怎麽样? How well does your friend speak Chinese? Summary: Subject Verb Object Repeated verb Structural Particle The complement of Degree 你妈妈 作 点心 作 得 非常好 你 看 书 看 得 快不快 她 回答 问题 回答 得 怎么样 2.The object is preposed: 这个问题他回答得很好。 He answered this question perfectly. 他电影看得很多。 He sees a lot of movies (she sees movies a lot). 这件事儿我们谈得很多。 We talked about this matter a lot. Note that the position of the object can be before or after the subject. Summary: Object Subject Object Verb Structural Particle Complement of degree 法文 他 说 得 不错 她 酒 喝 得 多不多 房间 她 整理 得 很乾净 他 报告 昨 得 怎么样 2.The pattern 不是....吗? The pattern 不是....吗? can be used to expressed emphasis. This pattern is employed when one feels something is not in keeping with what is believed, and wants to express his doubt. For example: 他不是你哥哥吗? Isn’t he your older brother? 床上的那本书不是你的吗? Isn’t that book on the bed yours? 你不是认识她吗? Don’t you recognize her? 你妈妈不是明天来吗? Won’t your Mom come tomorrow? Note that in the examples, the emphasized parts are highlighted, which could a noun, a noun phrase, a verb or a time word, etc.. No matter what it is, 不是 must be place right before the emphasized element, and 吗 always appears at the end of the sentence. 3. The pattern 再 V.(一)点儿(O.): The pattern 再 V.(一)点儿(object) means “ do some more (of) something”. For example: 请再喝点儿矿泉水。 Please drink some more mineral water. 我们再看点儿电视吧。 Let’s watch some more TV. 再吃点儿饭,好吗? Eat some more food, OK? 他们想再听点儿音乐。 They want to listen to some more music. (一)点儿 in this pattern can be substituted by 几 + measure word. For example: 请再写几个字吧。 Please write a few more words. 我们 再买几张纸吧。 Let’s buy a few more pieces of paper. 4. The correlative adverb (要是)...就...: The correlative adverb (要是)...就...introduces a complex sentence of supposative relation. The subordinate clause introduced by 要是 puts forward an assumption, while the main clause signified by 就 states the results or inference drawn for the assumption. The English equivalent of the correlative adverb (要是)...就...is “if...then”. For example: 要是你想去,我就跟你一起去。 If you want to go, (then) I will go with you. 要是她喜欢吃,我就买。 If she likes to eat (it), (then) I’d buy (it). 你要是喜欢她,就告诉她吧。 If you like her, then tell her. 你想家,就给爸爸妈妈 打个电话吧。 If you are home-sick, then give Mom and Dad a call. Note that: 1.In the subordinate clause, the subject can go before or after 要是 . But the subject in the main clause can only appear BEFORE 就 . 2.If the subjects in both clauses are the same, then one of them can be omitted. 3.Sometimes, the correlative adverb 要是 in the subordinate clause can be omitted. 5. 在 + O. as prepositional phrase VS. 在 + O. verb complements: We are quite familiar with 在 + O.as preposition phrase, which gives setting for main action. For example: 他 在图书馆 看 书。 He reads in the library. Subj. Prep. phr. V. O. 小丁 在家 写 报告。 Ding writes a report at home. Subj. Prep. phr. V. O. From the above examples we can see that information as to where an action takes place is provided by the prepositional phrase 在 + O.which appears BEFORE the verb. But we also came across the following sentences: 我的车 停 在河边。 My car parks by the river. Subj. V. Complement 他 住 在那间小卧室里。 He lives in that small bedroom. Subj. V. Complement In these two examples, 在 + O. phrase is places AFTER the verb as a complement, which signifies where someone or something comes to rest as a result of the action. Most of the verbs in Chinese such as 学习,工作,锻炼 ,访问 etc. can only take 在 + O.as a prepositional phrase, for the actions they expressed are not concerned with a terminal point. There are a small number of verbs, such as 住,,坐,站,走,停, etc., can have 在 + O.BEFORE or AFTER the verb without any substantial difference in meaning. But that’s not the case with some verbs. For example: 他在桌上写。 He writes by the table. 他写在桌上。 He writes onto the table. 你在哪儿录第十六课? Where (in what place) did you make the recording of Lesson 16? 第十六课,你录在哪儿呢?Where (on which tape) did you record Lesson 16?

 

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