初级第二十八课

语 法

1.The time-measure complement: A word or phrase attached to a verb or adjective predicate to complete the meaning is known as a complement. A time-measure complement is a time phrase such as 一天,一个星期,三十分钟, 五个小时,which follows the verb to indicate the duration of the action. For example: 我要看五个小时。 I will watch for five hours. 他吃了半个小时。 He ate for half an hour. 她姐姐看电视看了一天。 Her older sister watched TV for a day. 我听新闻要听二十分钟。 I will listen to the news for twenty minutes. Note that: (1). An auxiliary verb such as 要, 想 can be used to express the intent: 我要看五个小时。 (2). Aspectual particle 了can be used to express the completed aspect: 他吃了半个小时。 (3). When the verb has an object, a)the verb has to be repeated: 她姐姐看电视看了一天。 我听新闻要听二十分钟。 b)you can also treat the object and the complement as a unit of quantified object, and structure the sentence thus: 她姐姐看了一天的电视。 我要听二十分钟的新闻。 (4). To question the duration of the action such questions as 多久,多长时间,几天,几个小时 can be used. For example: 你要听多久? How long will you listen? 她想了多长的时间? How long has she been thinking? 他弟弟作作业作了多长时间? How long did his younger brother work on the homework? 你去中国要去几个星期? How many weeks will you be in China? 你要坐几个小时的火车? How many hours’ train will you take? 2. Model Particle 了: Model particle 了is also known as “sentence particle 了”. Unlike the aspectual 了 , which comes after the verb, model particle is always found at the end of the sentence. The model particle 了can be used to express various different shade of meaning. In the previous lessons, we have encountered “太...了” pattern. In this pattern, model particle了 works with the adverb 太 to indicate excessiveness. For example: 这本书太贵了。 This book is too expensive. 汉字太难了。 Chinese characters are too difficult. In this lesson, we learn to use model particle to indicate that the event expressed in the narrative sentence has already taken place or accomplished. For example: 小张呢?她去实验室了。 Where is Zhang? She has gone to the lab. 你已经买了五张光碟了。你还想买。不行。 You have already bought five CD. You want more (You still want to buy). No. Note that: (1) Both aspectual 了and model 了can be present in a sentence. 你已经买了五张光碟了。 (2) But when 了comes after the verb and at the end of the sentence as well, it functions both as an aspectual and model particle. For example: 她来了。 我吃了。 (3) The model particle can be used to indicate that the action or event referred to is something which took place in the past, but past happenings do not always take the model particle. Compare the below two sentences: 我去看他的时候,他在打电话呢。 When I went to see him, he was making the call. 我去看他的时候,他打了电话了。 When I went to see him, he had made the call. (4) The negative form of the sentence with model particle 了 indicating accomplished event is made by putting the adverb 没(有 ) in front of the verb and at the same time dropping the 了. For example: 她买书了,没有买词典。 She bought books, (but) did not buy the dictionary. To form a question, you can add 吗 or 没有 at the end of the sentence. For example: 你看了那个电影了吗? Did you see the movie? 他回家了没有? Did he go home? To form an affirmative-negative question, you can juxtapose the affirmative and negative form. For example: 你吃没吃饭? Did you eat or not? 她去没去参加音乐会? Did she go to the concert or not? Summary: Subject Negation Verb Object Particle Affirmative 我妈妈 去 商店 了。 Negative 她 没有 买 那本词典。 Question 你 去 签证 了吗? 了没(有)? Affirmative- Negative 你哥哥 喝没 喝 你作的汤? 3. Sequential actions: We came across such a sentence pattern 我吃了饭就去 in Lesson 27. In this sentence there were two actions taking place: action 1 吃 ; action 2去 . Action 1 吃 takes place before action 2 去,so it has an aspectual particle 了right after the verb 吃 to indicate that the action 2 去 takes place only after action 1 is accomplished. Let’s see some more examples: 他看了电视 看书。 He watches TV (then) reads books. 你买了那本书(就)去上课。 You buy that book (first), (then) go to class. Summary: Subject Verb1 了 + (object) (就) Verb2+ (object) 她 买 了 书 回 家。 Note that this pattern can be used to refer to events that either talk about future plans or habitual behaviors. If one wants to talk about the events that happened in the past, one should add model particle了 at the end of the sentence. For example: 昨天她看了电影就回家了。 Yesterday she saw a movie (then) went home. 上午我下了课去咖啡馆。 This morning after got out of the class I went to the coffee house. Summary: Subject Verb1 了 + (object) (就) Verb2+ (object) 了 她 买 了 书 回 家 了。

 

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