初级第三十二课

语 法

1. The Aspect Particle "过" Indicating Past Experience (1.)The aspect particle "过" is used to indicate past experience. It is placed after the verb. In sentences with two verbal constructions in a series, "过" is usually placed after the second verb. The sentence patterns for the aspect particle "过" should be: S + V + "过" + O or S + V1 + O1 + V2 + "过" + O For examples: 1.) 我最近检查过身体。 I have had a physical exam recently. 2.)我吃过中国菜。 I have had (the experience of eating) Chinese food. 3.)上星期我去纽约看过朋友。 Last week I went to (or had the experience of going to) see a friend. 4.) 小丁昨天去北大医院检查过身体。 Xiaoding went to the Beijing University Hospital to have a physical exam yesterday. (2.)The negative and interogative forms of the aspect particle "过" a. The negative form of the aspect particle "过" is as follows: S + (还)没有 + V + "过" + O (呢) or S + (还)没有 +V1 + O1 + V2 + "过" + O(呢) For examples: 1.)学友(还)没有在北大医院作过体检(呢)。 Xueyou has not yet been to the Beijing University Hospital to have a physical exam. 2.)王老师的太太(还)没有去美国看过王老师(呢)。 Teacher Wang's wife has not yet been to the U.S. to see Teacher Wang. b. The interogative forms of the aspect particle "过" are as follows: 1.)General questions using the question word 吗 at the end of an affirmative sentence. S + V + "过" + O + 吗? or S + V1 + O1 + V2 + "过" + O + 吗? For examples: 1.)你最近在美国作过体检吗? Have you had a physical exam in the U.S. recently? 2.)小丁去北大医院看过病吗? Has Xiaoding been to the Beijing University Hospital to see a doctor? 2.)Affirmative-negative questions using negation words 没有 at the end of an affirmative sentence. S + V + "过" + O + 没有? or S + V1 + O1 + V2 + "过" + O + 没有? For examples: 1.)你最近检查过身体没有? Have you had a physical exam in the U.S. recently? 2.)小丁去北大医院看过大夫没有? Has Xiaoding been to the Beijing University Hospital to see a doctor? (3.) The differences between the aspect particle 过 indicating past experience and the aspect particle 了 indicating the completion of an action a. The aspect particle 过 always indicates an action that took place in the past, and is often used to emphasize past experience. The aspect particle 了 indicates the completion of an action, which can happen either in the past, or in the future. For examples: 1.)护士小姐给小丁量过体温。 The nurse has taken the body tempreture for Xiaoding. (The nurse does not have to take the tempareture again.) 2.)护士小姐给小丁量了体温。 The nurse took the body tempareture for Xiaoding. (Simply stating the fact that the nurse took the tempareture.) 3.)护士小姐告诉小丁:“看了病你就可以去药房买药。” The nurse told Xiaoding: "After you see the doctor, you can go to the pharmacy and buy medicine." b. Diffent negation patterns between the aspect particle 过 and the aspect particle 了 For the aspect particle 过, the pattern should be: S + (还)没有 + V + "过" + O (呢) or S + (还)没有 +V1 + O1 + V2 + "过" + O(呢) ( 过 remains in the negation pattern) For the aspect particle 了,the pattern should be: S + (还)没有 + V + O (呢) or S + (还)没有 +V1 + O1 + V2 + O(呢) (了 is left out in the negation pattern) For examples: 1.)小丁(还)没有吃过中药(呢)。 Xiaoding has never had the exerience of taking Chinese medicine. 2.)小丁(还)没有吃中药(呢)。 Xiaoding has not yet taken her Chinese medicine. 3.)小丁和学友(还)没有去王老师的家看过他的太太和儿子(呢)。 Xiaoding and Xueyou have not yet had the experience of going to Teacher Wang's home to visit his wife and his son. 4.)小丁和学友(还)没有去王老师的家看他的太太和儿子(呢)。 Xiaoding and Xueyou has not yet been to Teacher Wang's home to visit his wife and his son. c. When talking about a past experience, if the speaker would like to indicate that the event referred to has already taken place and is relevant to the present situation, the modal particle 了 (not the aspect particle 了) can be added at the end of a sentence that contains the aspect particle 过. For examples: 1.)小丁看过中国大夫了。 Xiaoding has had the experience of seeing a Chinese doctor. 2.)小丁和学友去北京大学学过中文了。 Xiaoding and Xueyou have had the experience of going to the Beijing Univeristy to study Chinese. 2. The Action Measure Words "次","遍","一下儿" When counting the number of times that an action takes place, an action measure word is used together with numerals. The unit of numeral + action measure word is usually placed after the verb and functions as a complement. While both "次" and "遍" mark the number of times that an action takes place, "遍" is different from "次" in that it emphasizes the entire process of an action. As to "一下儿", it is an action measure word that indicates the quickness or short duration of an action. Sometimes, the action measure word "一下儿" also indicates the casual manner of an action. The aspects of the verb can be past aspect or future aspect. The patterns are as follows: a. The past aspect of verb S + V + Past Aspect Particle (过,了) + Numeral + Action Measure Word + O For examples: 1.)去年我作过一次体检。 Last year I had a physical exam once. 2.)护士小姐给小丁检查了一遍身体。 The nurse did a complete medical check-up (including tempreture, blood pressure, weight, height, etc.) for Xiaoding. 3.)刘老师昨天见了一下儿学友。 Teacher Liu met Xueyou for a little while yesterday. b. The future aspect of verb S + Future Aspect Particle (要,想) + V + Numeral + Action Measure Word + O 1.)王老师的太太想去一次美国。 Teacher Wang's wife would like to go to the U.S. one time. 2.)我要看一遍这本有名的中国小说。 I would like to read through (from the first page to the last page) this famous Chinese novel. 3.)刘老师请学友去一下儿他的办公室。 Teacher Liu asked Xueyou to go the his office for a little while. 3. The Structure "不是...而是..." The Structure "不是...而是..." means "not...but/rather". It is used when the speaker would like to explain that situation B is different from situation A,and situation B is the one that really happens. The basic pattern is: 不是 + Situation A, 而是 + Situation B For examples: 1.)在中国看病,不是打电话给大夫约时间,而是直接去医院。 For seeing a doctor in China, (people) do not call the doctor('s office) to make an appointment, rather, (people) go to the hospital directly. 2.)小丁大学毕业以後,不是找工作,而是上研究所。 After Xiaoding graduated from college, she did not look for a job, rather, she went to a graduate school. 3.)今年暑假,大为不是回家看爸爸妈妈,而是在学校里继续上课。 This summer, Dawei did not go home and see his mom and dad, rather, he went on to take classes in school.

 

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