1. The Continuous Aspect of an Action--the Use of 着 The aspect particle 着 is placed after the verb in a sentence to indicate the continuation of an action. The subject of the sentence can be a person or a place. The sentence pattern is as follows: S + V + 着 + O (1.) The pattern is used to describe the continous aspect of an action by a person/people or the continous aspect of a state about a person/people. For example: 1.)人美在宿舍等着学友呢。 Renmei is waiting for Xueyou in the dorm. 2.)学友看着人美在北京照的新照片。 Xueyou is looking at the new pictures Renmei took in Beijing. 3.)王老师喝着从中国带来的龙井茶。 Teacher Wang is drinking the Longjing tea (he) brought from China. (2.) The pattern is also used to describe the continous aspect of an action or the continous aspect of a state effecting a place. For example: 1.)小丁的桌子上放着很多照片。 Many pictures are placed on Xiaoding's desk. 2.)信封上写着小丁爸爸的名字。 Xiaoding's father's name is written down on the envelope. 3.)这间宿舍住着两个美国留学生。 Two American students live in this dorm. (3.) In sentences with series of verbal structures, the aspect particle 着 is placed after the first verb to describe the state or manner in which the second action is carried out. For example: 1.)小丁拿着一张照片问林老师：“您的这张照片是在北大图书馆照的吗？” Xiaoding asked Teacher Lin while holding a picture: "Is this picture of you taken in the Beijing University Library?" 2.)开开穿着一件蓝衣服去幼儿园(yo4u e2r yua2n, kindergarten)。 Kaikai is wearing blue clothes to go to the kindergarten. 3.)世海拿着一本中文语法书去王老师那儿问问题。 Shihai is carrying a Chinese grammar book to go to Teacher Wang's place and ask questions. (4.) When a verb is followed by the aspect particle 着 to indicate the continuation of an action of a state, the verb does not take complements. For example: 小丁和学友坐着听王老师说话。 Xiaoding and Xueyou are sitting there listening to Teacher Wang talk. It is incorrect to add a complement to the sentence in the following way: *小丁和学友坐着听王老师说话二十分钟。 (5.) The differences between the continuous aspect of an action using the particle 着 and the progressive aspect of an action using the particle 正在/正/在. a. The continuous aspect of an action usually implies that the action is in progress, and therefore, the particles 正在, 正, or 在 and the word 呢 are often used with the particle 着. For example: 1.)学友的手里正拿着北京地图呢。 Xueyou's hand is holding a map of Beijing. 2.)学友来看林老师的时候，外边正下着雨呢。 When Xueyou came to see Teacher Lin, it was raining outside. b. The continuous aspect of an action emphasizes and describes the static aspect of an action or a state, and the aspect particle 着 is placed after the verb (or the first verb in sentences with series of verbal structures). As to the progressive aspect of an action, it emphasizes the active aspect of an action, and the aspect particles 正在, 正, or 在 are placed before the verb. For example: 1.)学友正在拿中国地图。 Xueyou is holding a map of China (right this moment). 2.)学友拿着中国地图。 Xueyou has been holding a map of China. (6.) The negative and interrogative forms of the patterns that indicate the continuous aspect of an action. a. The negation form of the patterns that indicate the continuous aspect of an action is to add the negative 没有 before the verb (or the first verb in sentences with series of verbal structures) and take the particle 着 out of the sentence. The patterns should be: S (people/place) + 没有 + V + O or S + 没有 + V1 + O1 + V2 + O2 For example: 1.)王老师没有喝从北京带来的龙井茶。 Teacher Wang didn't drink the Longjing tea (he) brought from Beijing. 2.)开开没有穿蓝衣服去幼儿园。 Kaikai didn't wear blue clothes to the kingdergarten. 3.)外边没有下雨。 It didn't rain outside. b. The interrogative form of the patterns that indicate the continuous aspect of an action is to add the question word 吗 or the negative 没有 at the end of the affirmative sentences. The patterns should be: S (about people/people) + V + 着 + O + 吗/没有? or S + V1 + 着 + O1 + V2 + O2 + 吗/没有? For example: 1.)这间宿舍住着两个美国留学生吗？ Do two American students live in this dorm? 2.)学友拿着中文语法书去图书馆没有？ Did Xueyou go to the library holding a Chinese grammar book? 3.)小丁的桌子上放着她爸爸、妈妈的照片吗？ Is the picture of her mom and dad placed on Xiaoding's desk? 2. The Use of the Structural Particle 地 (1.) Bisyllabic or polysyllabic adjective are often used together with the structural particle 地, as an adverbial modifier, to modify the verb in a sentence. Sometimes, the structural particle 地 is omitted. The pattern should be: S + Bisyllabic/polysyllabic Adj. + 地 + V + O For example: 1.)就要期末(qi1mo4, end of the semester, final)考试了。 我要认真(地)复习 课文。 The final exam is soon. I want to review the lesson carefully. 2.)小丁高兴地说：“这是个好主意。” Xiaoding said gladly:"That is a good idea." 3.)在北京大学，小丁和学友都努力(地)学习中文。 In Beijing University, Xiaoding and Xueyou are both studying Chinese with great effort. (2.) The differences between adverbial modifier structure using 地 and the complement of degree structure using 得. a. Structurally, for the adverbial modifier structure using 地, the adjective + 地 structure is placed before the verb. For the complement of degree structure using 得, the 得 + adjective structure is placed after the verb. For example: 1.)学友认真地看小丁的照片。 Xueyou is looking at Xiaoding's pictures carefully. 2.)学友看小丁的照片看得很认真。 Xueyou is looking at Xiaoding's pictures carefully. b. Both the complement of degree structure and the adverbial modifier structure can be used when describing a present action. For example: 1.)她很大声(da4she1ng, loudly)地朗读(la3ngdu2, read)中文。 = 她朗读中文 朗读得很大声。 She reads Chinese very loudly. 2.)世海吃午饭吃得很快。 = 世海很快地吃完午饭。 Shihai eats his lunch very fast. c. The complement of degree structure is often used when describing an action that has already taken place or an action occurs frequently or habitually. For example: 1.) 昨天我复习中文复习得很认真。(也可以说“昨天我很认真地复习中文。”) Yesterday I reviewed Chinese very carefylly. 2.) 我吃饭吃得很快，我姐姐吃饭吃得很慢。 I eat fast; my older sister eats slowly. d. The adverbial modifier structure can be used when describing an action that has not yet happened. For example: 1.) 明天我要认真地复习中文。(不能说“明天我要复习中文复习得很认真。”) Tomorrow I want to review Chinese carefully. 2.) 我希望我的朋友们会更多地了解中国。 (不能说“我希望我的朋友们会 了解中国了解得很多。”) I hope that my friends will know China more. e. Generally, the complement of degree structure emphasizes the result of an accomplished action, whereas the adverbial modifier structure emphasizes the manner or attitude in which the subject takes or is going to take an action. For example: 1.)上个学期， 他学习学得不努力，所以他考试考得不太好。 Last semester, he didn't study hard, so he did not do well in the exam. 2.)这个学期，他应该努力(地)学习。 This semester, he should study hard. 3. The Structure 有的...有的... The pronoun 有的 means "some". It is used as an adjective modifier in the structure "有的 + N ...有的 + N ...". The pronoun 有的 may occur for once, twice or three times in a sentence, depending on the context. The noun modified by 有的 can be left out if the noun has appeared earlier in the sentence. For example: 1.)在美国，有的人喜欢吃美国菜， 有的人喜欢吃中国菜， 有的人喜欢吃日本菜。 In the U.S., some people like to eat American food, some like to eat Chinese food, some like to eat Japanese food. 2.)在图书馆里，有的学生在看书，有的(学生)在用电脑。 In the library, some students are reading books, some are using computers. 3.)北京大学有很多外国留学生。 有的是美国人，有的是日本人，有的是欧洲人。 There are many foreign students in Beijing Unversity. Some are Americans, some are Japanese, some are Europeans. 4. The Structure 有些...还有一些... The structure 有些...还有一些... means "some...(still) some others...". The use of which is very similar to the structure 有的...有的.... The only difference is that by using 些, the structure 有些...还有一些... emphasizes plurality. For example: 1.)小丁从美国带来了一些照片。 有些是小丁和学友跟王老师一起照的， 还有一些 是他们学校的照片。 Xiaoding brought some pictures from the U.S. Some were pictures that Xiaoding and Xueyou took with Teacher Wang, some others were pictures of their school. 2.)昨天我去书店买了很多中文书。 有些是中文小说，还有一些是中文语法书和 词典。 I went to the bookstore and bought many Chinese books yesterday. Some were Chinese novels, some others were Chinese grammar books and dictionaries. 3.)小丁认识很多中国朋友。 有些是北京大学的学生，还有一些是在公司或者国家 机关(guo2jia1ji1gua1n, the government agencies)工作的年轻人。 Xiaoding knew many Chinese friends. Some were students of Beijing University, some others were young people working in corporations or government agencies. 5. The Structure 跟/和...(不)一样 The structure 跟/和...一样 means "the same as...". The negative form of it, the structure 跟/和...不一样 means "not the same as...". The structure 跟/和...(不)一样 is used when the speaker wants to talk about the same characteristic/situation that applies to two different people/ things. The basic pattern is: S1 + 跟/和 + S2 + (不)一样 Note: the first subject of a sentence using the structure 跟/和...一样 can be a noun, a simple noun phrase or a complex noun phrase modified by an attributive clause. The second subject of the sentence can be of the similar structure as that of the subject; it can also be simply a noun, or a simple noun phrase. For example: 1.)美国人说的英文跟英国人不太一样。 或者：美国人说的英文跟英国人说的英文不太一样。 The English spoken by Americans is different from the one spoken by the British. 2.)中国人写信封的方法跟美国人不一样。 The way Chinese write letters is different from the one the Americans do. 3.)我的中文书跟我朋友的中文书一样。 My Chinese book is the same as that of my friend's.