1. The Continuous Aspect of an Action--the Use of 着 1.)小丁的爸爸、妈妈看着小丁从北京寄来的信和照片，心里很高兴。 While looking at the letter and the pictures that Xiaoding sent from Beijing, Xiaoding's mom and dad felt very happy. 2.)昨天，我去看我的好朋友的时候，她正吃着她妈妈给她做的点心呢。 Yesterday, when I went to see my good friend, she was eating the pastries made by her mom. 3.)我哥哥的桌子上放着他和他的女朋友的照片。 The picture of my brother and his girlfriend is placed on his desk. 4.)我的中国朋友喜欢听着美国流行歌曲整理房间。 My Chinese friend likes to put things into order while listening to American pop songs. 5.)你喜欢看着电视做作业吗？ Do you like to do your homework while watching TV? 6.)这是我爸爸的汉语词典。 屝页上(fe1iye4, title page)写着我爸爸的名字。 This is my dad's Chinese dictionary. My dad's name is written down on the title page. 2. The Use of the Structural Particle 地 1.)我离开中国来美国留学的那一天， 我妹妹难过地哭了。 The day I left China to come to study in the U.S., my younger sister cried. 2.)林老师的口语课很有意思。 每堂课上， 同学们都很认真地听讲(ti1ngjia3ng, listen to the lecture)， 做练习。 Teacher Lin's conversation class is very interesting. In every class, students listen to the lecture very carefully, and do exercises. 3.)他的爸爸、妈妈为了让他能上有名的大学， 非常辛苦地工作。 His father and mother work very hard so that he can go to a famous university. 4.)我的中文口语不太好。 明年，我要去中国， 好好地练习我的口语。 My Chinese speaking is not very good. Next year, I want to go to China, and practice my speaking hard. 5.)这本书能帮助你更好地了解中国文化。 This book can help you understand Chinese culture better. 6.)学友告诉小丁明天林老师跟他们一起去长城玩。 小丁高兴地说： “太好了。” Xueyou told Xiaoding that tomorrow Teacher Lin will go with them to the Great Wall. Xiaoding said happily:"That's great." 3. The Structure 有的...有的... 1.)北大的学生都很喜欢锻练。 每天下午，有的学生跑步，有的打球，有的游泳。 Students in Beijing University like to do exercises a lot. Every afternoon, some students go running, some play balls, some go swimming. 2.)我有很多音乐CD。 有的是美国流行音乐，有的是欧洲古典音乐，有的中国 民间音乐。 I have a lot of music CDs. Some are American pop music, some are European classical music, some are Chinese folk music. 3.)在美国的大学里，有的学生住学生宿舍，有的住自己租(zu1, rent)房子，有的 住在爸爸、妈妈的家里。 In American universities, some students live in the students' dorm, some live in a house rented by themselves, some live in their mom's and dad's house. 4.)大学毕业以後，有的人开始工作，有的人上研究所。 After college graduation, some people start to work, some go to graduate school. 4. The Structure 有些...还有一些... 1.)去纽约的火车上，有些人是去纽约玩儿的，有些人是去工作的， 还有一些人是 去办事(ba4n shi4, to do business)的。 On the train to New York, some people go to New York for fun, some go for work, still others go for business. 2.)她今年夏天买了很多衣服。 有些是上课穿的， 有些是在家里穿的，还有一些 是出去玩儿穿的。 She bought many clothes this summer. Some are for class, some are for home, still others are for outings. 3.)健身房里锻练的人很多。 有些人在跑步机上跑步， 有些人在练习举重， 还有 一些人在跳健美操。 There are many people doing exercises in the gym. Some people are running on the running machine, some are practising weight lifting, still others are doing aerobics. 5. The Structure 跟/和...(不)一样 1.)北京的气候跟上海的不太一样。 The weather in Beijing is not the same as in Shanghai. 2.)他写的字跟他爸爸的字一样漂亮。 The characters he writes are as beautiful as the characters his father writes. 3.)他的中文跟他的英文一样好。 His Chinese is as good as his English. 4.)我今天吃的午饭跟昨天吃的一样。 The lunch I had today is the same as what I had yesterday. 6. The conjunction 而且 "and also" 1.)人美自己带着信封去邮局，而且已经写好地址了。 Renmei took her own envelope to the post office, and also had written down the address (on it). 2.)今年夏天的天气很热，而且不下雨。 It is very hot this summer, and also, it hasn't been raining. 3.)北京是中国的政治经济中心，而且也是中国的文化中心。 Beijing is the political and economic center of China, and also, it is the cultural center of China. 4.)学习历史是为了了解过去，而且也是为了指导未来。 Studying history is to understand the past, and also, it is to guide the future. 7. The conjunction 但是 "but" 1.)寄特快专递很快，但是邮费很贵。 It is very fast to send (a letter) by express mail; but the postage is very expensive. 2.)学习历史很有意思，但是学得好不容易。 Studing history is very interesting; but it is not easy to learn it well. 3.)美国的邮局跟中国的邮局一样方便， 但是， 美国的邮局星期六、星期天不 开门。 The post office in the U.S. is as convenient as the one in China. However, the post office in the U.S. does not open on Saturdays and Sundays. 4.)这家中国餐馆作的菜很地道，但是很贵。 The dishes made in this Chinese restaurant are very authentic; but they are very expensive. 8. The adverb 顺便 "incidentally, in passing, (do sth) in addition to what one is already doing, without much extra effort" 1.)顺便问一下儿， 取包裹需要什麽手续？ By the way, may I ask what procedures are needed for claiming a packet? 2.)今天我去邮局寄信的时候，顺便买了几张明信片。 When I went to the post office to mail a letter today, I bought some postcards while I was there. 3.)昨天学友去林老师那儿问问题，顺便借了一本中文语法书。 Yesterday, Xueyou went to Teacher Lin's place to ask some questions while he was there. He borrowed a Chinese grammar book by chance. 4.)去年他来美国的时候，顺便去加拿大玩了一个星期。 Last year when he came to the U.S., he went to Canada for a week while there. 9. The conjunction 於是 "so; then; hence" 1.)小丁听说中国人写信封的方法跟美国人不太一样。 於是， 她给林老师打电话， 问林老师怎麽写中文信封。 Xiaoding heard that the way Chinese address envelopes is kind of different from the Americans. Hence, she called Teacher Lin and asked him how to address a Chinese envelope. 2.)学友和人美都很想更多地了解中国文化。 於是，他们利用暑假去北京学中文。 Both Xueyou and Renmei would like to know more about Chinese culture. Hence, they took advantage of the summer break to go to Beijing and study Chinese. 3.)刘老师告诉学友， 去北大医院检查身体不需要打电话约时间。 於是， 学友 直接去北大医院找负责体检的李大夫。 Teacher Liu told Xueyou that to go to the Beijing University Hospital to have a physical exam, (he) doesn't need to make a phone call to schedule an appointment. Hence, Xueyou went to the Beijing University Hospital directly to see Dr. Li, who is in charge of physical exam. 4.)人美的中国朋友们告诉她， 北京香山的红叶在秋天的时候最美。 於是， 人美 跟她的男朋友学友这个星期六要去香山玩。 Renmei's Chinese friends told her, the red leaves of the Fragrant Hill in Beijing are the most beautiful in the Fall. Hence, Renmei and her boyfriend Xueyou are going to the Fragrant Hill this Saturday. 10.The preposition 按照 "according to" 1.)小丁和学友按照林老师电话里说的，写好了信封。 Xiaoding and Xueyou addressed the envelope according to what Teacher Lin said on the phone. 2.)小丁按照王老师给他们的电话号码，给王老师的太太打电话。 Using the phone number that Teacher Wang gave them, Xiaoding and Xueyou called Teacher Wang's wife. 3.)学友按照刘老师说的， 直接去北大医院找李大夫体检。 Xueyou went to the Beijing University Hospital directly to look for Dr. Li for a physical exam as Teacher Liu had said to do. 4.)人美按照大夫给她开的药方(ya4ofa1ng, prescription)， 买了一些中药。 Renmei bought some Chinese medicine in accordance with the prescription given by the doctor.