Sentence Patterns: 比如说 for example 比如说，他去商店买东西，一开始经常被售货员们冷落在一边。 For example, at first he would always be ignored by the salespeople when he went shopping in stores. 1. 小玉和她的同学们关系很好。比如说，她们经常一起去饭馆吃饭。 Xiaoyu get along well with her classmates. For example, they often go to restaurants together. 2. 北京和纽约有点儿相似。比如说，这两个城市的居民都喜欢看戏。 Beijing is kind of similar with New York. For instance, the residents of the both cities love to go to theater. 经过．．．的 + 动词 after doing something 经过一段时间的观察，大卫发现很多中国人对于他们的语言，有一种特殊的感情。 After some time of observation, David noticed that a lot of Chinese have a special feeling towards their language. 1. 经过两年的学习，大卫的汉语有了很大进步。 After two years of study, David has made a great progress in his Chinese learning. 2. 经过几个月的写作，李先生完成了他的小说。 After several month of writing, Mr. Li has finished his novel. 同样的 in the same manner, similarly 同样的，中国文化是世界上最悠久灿烂的文化。 Similarly, Chinese culture is the most historical and brilliant culture in the world. 1. 商店的售货员对大卫很热情，同样的，路上的行人对他也很友好。 The clerks in the stores are very nice to David. Similarly, the pedestrians on the street are also friendly to him. 2. 王文喜欢在家里发表意见，同样的，他也喜欢在学校里发表意见。 Wang Wen likes to speak out his opinions at home. In the same manner, he likes to express his comments at school as well. 把．．．搞 + 形容词 make something (clear, confusing, etc.) 把四声搞清楚。 (They can) clearly distinguish the four tones. 1. 经过一个星期的研究，小李终于把这个问题搞清楚了。 After a week of research, Xiao Li finally solved the problem. 2. 他在电话里说外国话，把我都搞糊涂了。 He spoke foreign languages over the telephone and made me confused. 顶多．．．（而已） at most 顶多知道些皮毛而已。 (They) only knew the surface (of Chinese culture) at most. 1. 小王比大卫顶多大两岁而已。 Xiao Wang is older than David for at most two years. 2. 李太太不喜欢和人打招呼，遇见朋友顶多笑一笑而已。 Mrs. Li does not like to greet people. She would at most smile a little when running into a friend. 3. 新来的老师很年轻，看上去顶多三十岁。 The new teacher is quite young. He looks at mot thirty years old. 作为 as 但是，作为一个外国学生，只学会拼音和单词还远远不够。 However, as a foreign student, it is far not enough to have only learned pinyin and vocabulary. 1. 作为一个中文老师，马先生觉得他有责任帮助他的学生学好中文。 As a teacher of Chinese, Mr. Ma feels responsible to help his students to master Chinese language. 2. 作为主人，我们应该尊重客人的习惯。 As the hosts, we should respect the guests' habit. 尽管．．．可是 although 尽管他没有犯任何语法错误，可是电话那头的中国朋友听起来还是会觉得彆扭。 Although he did not make any grammatical mistake, the Chinese friend on the other end of the telephone would still feel uncomfortable. 1. 尽管小张学习很努力，可是他的成绩一直不太好。 Even though Xiao Zhang studies very hard, his grade has not been very good. 2.尽管有些美国学生很喜欢学中文，可是他们有时还是不习惯中国人的一些礼节。 Although some American students love to study Chinese, sometimes they are still not used to some of Chinese rituals and customs. 极其 very, extremely 他的普通话发音极其标准。 His pronunciation of Putonghuan is very accurate. 1. 我的中国老师写的字极其漂亮。 The handwriting of my Chinese teacher is very beautiful. 2. 这位美国朋友唱歌极其好听。 This American friend sings very well. 甚至 even 他甚至还用了中国式的名字和称呼。 He even used a name and address of Chinese style. 1. 为了买到这本书，他甚至把父亲送他的手錶卖了。 He even sold the watch given by his father in order to purchase this book. 2. 我对那篇文章的作者一点儿都不了解。我甚至不知道他是男的还是女的。 I know nothing about the author of the book. I don't even know if he is a man or a woman. 结果 as a result (usually negative) 结果，虽然他的中文非常流利，他的中国朋友还是一个个跟他疏远了。 As a result, even though his Chinese is very good, his Chinese friends gradually became estranged from him one by one. 1. 他喜欢和别人争论问题，结果，他的同学们都不愿意和他说话了。 He liked to argue with others. As a result, all of his classmates did not talk to him anymore. 2. 王伟经常在上班的时候和朋友聊天，结果，他的经理越来越不喜欢他了。 Wang Wei always chatted with his friends during work. As a result, his manager disliked him more and more. 渐渐 gradually 大卫渐渐意识到，学习外国语言和文化的时候，他自己的某些观念也会改变。 David gradually realized that, during the study of foreign languages and cultures, his own opinions and concepts will change as well. 1. 在中国待了两年以後，大卫渐渐迷上了这个国家。 After having lived in China for two years, David gradually became fond of this country. 2. 上了几个月的课，李新的英文写作渐渐有了进步。 After having taken the course for several months, Li Xin gradually made a progress in his English composition. 值得 worth of 为了对中国文化有深层次的了解，这种牺牲是值得的。 The sacrifice is worth of making in order to get a deep understanding of Chinese culture. 1. 张太太结婚 以後不再工作，她觉得，为了家庭，这样做是值得的。 Mrs. Zhang stopped working after getting married. To her, it is worth of doing so for her family. 2.大卫花了很多时间学习中文，他甚至都没有时间找女朋友。朋友们都认为他这样做 不值得，大卫却不这麽想。 David spent a lot of time studying Chinese. He even didn't have time to find a girlfriend. Many of his friends thought it was not worthy, but David didn't think so.